Louise Arbour, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Arbour is best known for serving an indictment on Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic in 1999. She was the chief prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda, when the court upheld the first-ever conviction of a head of state, Jean Kambanda of Rwanda, for orchestrating genocide. As a result of her work at the tribunals, rape was recognized for the first time as a crime against humanity in international law. In 1995, she served as the single commissioner under the Inquiry Act, investigating and reporting on events at the Prison for Women in Kingston, Ontario, making recommendations to the solicitor general of Canada about the operation of Canada’s Correctional Service.
Having served as a professor and associate dean at Osgoode Hall Law School at York University in Canada, Arbour left academia to serve on the Supreme Court of Ontario (High Court of Justice), the Court of Appeals for Ontario and, beginning in 1999, a Justice of the Canadian Supreme Court. She left the Supreme Court in 2004 to become the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
Read Louise Arbour’s Speech.
The Honorable Richard J. Goldstone, former Supreme Court Judge of South Africa
Justice Richard J. Goldstone has participated in a number of key human rights events of the 20th century, including the transition from apartheid in South Africa. He serves on the boards of Human Rights Watch and Physicians for Human Rights, is a director of the American Arbitration Association, and is the Henry Shattuck Visiting Professor of Law at the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice at the University of San Diego.
From 1991 to 1994, Goldstone was chair of the Commission of Inquiry Regarding Public Violence and Intimidation, which came to be known as the Goldstone Commission. He has also served as chief prosecutor of the United Nations International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda, and served as chairperson of a group of international experts who met in Valencia, Spain, and drafted a Declaration of Human Duties and Responsibilities (known as the Valencia Declaration), for the director general of UNESCO.
Goldstone was chair of the International Independent Inquiry on Kosovo, and co-chair of the International Task Force on Terrorism established by the International Bar Association. He is the author of a number of articles on human rights, and two books: For Humanity: Reflections of a War Crimes Investigator, and Facing Ethnic Conflicts: Toward a New Realism. He also was involved in drafting the post-apartheid South African Bill of Rights.